School bullying and how to prevent it in schools

School bullying and how to prevent it in schools

School bullying, with its aggression towards others, whether it is physical, verbal, social, or sexual, is one of the problems that have negative effects, whether on the bully, on the victim, on the school environment, or on society as a whole.
School bullying affects the bully himself, as well as the victim of the bully and the school environment, where the psychological effects of bullying are multiple, represented in the victim’s feeling of fear, anxiety and unease, and a sense of rejection and withdrawal from participating in school activities, and the bully himself is affected as a result of his behavior and is exposed to deprivation or expulsion from school, Not taking advantage of educational programmes.
The school is the educational educational environment that prepares the individual in an integrated manner in all psychological, physical and mental aspects so that he is able to interact positively with his environment and society in a manner that benefits him and his society. Teachers and students during which to carry out the process of teaching and learning effectively.
Large schools and those run by a principal who lacks effectiveness, which lack order and discipline, as such an environment reinforces this behaviour. With regard to academic achievement, multiple studies have been conducted to measure this achievement, and their results showed a poor level of achievement for bullies and their victims.
And that the bullying student suffers from severe hatred for school, and suffers from lack of understanding, distraction, neglect, failure to perform homework, distraction, negligence, failure to perform homework, and frequent absences.
Hence, the principal of the school has great responsibilities, because the expected role that should be in the direction of providing an appropriate and safe environment and an administrative climate that encourages the process of teaching and learning, and the principal of the school also has a major role in confronting the phenomenon of bullying in his school, but school principals must realize the nature of phenomenon to succeed in confronting or reducing it.
School bullying is also one of the common and dangerous phenomena in the school community, and despite the seriousness of this phenomenon, in the Arab community it has not received sufficient study and appropriate attention to the size and seriousness of this phenomenon. On the contrary, foreign literature is full of books, research and magazines in this regard to the extent that there are programs To prevent school bullying.

Elements of the bullying process:

The bullying process consists of three elements:
1- The bully :
He is the one who quarrels with others in order to try to impose his control over them and seize their property.
2- The victim:
A child who is vulnerable to abuse and theft of property.
3- Spectators:
They are of two types:
Reinforcers : They are the ones who provide support to the bully because of the relationship they have with him, and thus they are actual participants in the assault.
Defenders (guards) :They are the ones who sympathize with the victim and give him a helping hand.

Types of bullying students:

Wong classified bullying students into two types:
1- The aggressive bully
2- The negative bully

Characteristics of bullied students:

Studies have found that bullies have a history of abuse and drug use, and that those who bullied in childhood become criminals in adulthood.
They also show high levels of impulsiveness and the need for power and dominance over others, and that bullies appear to show a lower level of anxiety, insecurity, and dominance over the victim, and that bullies have a self-esteem similar to normal children, because of their sense of power over their victims in addition to their positive attitudes towards them. violence.
They are as follows:
- Hyperactivity, impulsiveness and superior physical strength.
- Aggressiveness towards peers and teachers.
- They have a low level of anxiety, and the degree of self-esteem is no different from normal people.
- They do not feel empathy for their victims, or remorse for their violent actions.
- They belong to families that are subject to many punishments, especially physical ones, and they lack love and tenderness.
- Their attitudes towards violence are positive.
- They tend to dominate and control others.
- They are convinced of their actions and return the error to sacrifice.
In general, bullies tend to be arrogant, strong, and accepted by their peers, and they are characterized by their desire to control others through the use of violence, and they show concern for sympathy towards their victims, and it is also characterized by being surrounded by bullies or passive followers, and these do not necessarily initiate aggressive behavior, but they participate in it. They provide support and encouragement to the bully, and their approval raises the bully's sense of self and status, and makes the bully's behavior continue.

Types of students who are victims of bullying:

Students classified bullying victims into two categories:
1- The passive victim
2- The provocative victim

Characteristics of students who are victims of bullying:

Victims are characterized as having low self-esteem, having few friends, a sense of failure, negativity, anxiety, weakness and loss of self-confidence, and most of them are physically weaker than their peers, which makes them vulnerable to bullying attacks.
And because they are unable to form relationships with their peers, they tend to be isolated at school, which makes them feel lonely and neglected. They also fear going to school, which hinders their ability to focus, and creates academic performance that ranges between marginal and weak, with the constant presence of the threat of violence, which makes them feel insecure, which makes them feel insecure. It results in their physical and psychological symptoms.
It is noted that the child who is a victim of school bullying is characterized by many characteristics, including loneliness, poor psychological and social compatibility, shyness, shortcomings in social relations, and low self-esteem.
They are as follows:
- Intense fear, especially when going to or from school.
- Introvertedness and lack of friends.
- Continuous dropping out of school (frequent absences).
- Low academic achievement.
- Constant depression and unwillingness to participate in school activities.
- Constant loss of tools or money.
- Returning home with torn clothes, scratches, or damaged tools.

Reasons for school bullying:

There are many overlapping reasons that make a student tend to bullying behavior, which can be dealt with and classified as follows:

- Biological reasons:

Bullying students are characterized by physical strength that makes them superior to their victims, in addition to their genetic predispositions.

- psychological reasons :

As bullies are aggressive and impulsive towards others, along with a desire to control and show strength.

- Cognitive reasons:

Bullies have some cognitive distortion in their thinking patterns, which makes them tend to falsely believe that others have aggressive intentions towards them.

- Family reasons:

Among them are the following:

Family problems: such as the separation of the father from the mother or the large number of differences between them.

Wrong family upbringing: which relies on harsh corporal punishment, humiliation and neglect of children, and encouragement of violence.
Lack of communication between parents and children.

- Social reasons:

The bully has a high social and popular status among his peers, because they see in him the strength and ability to achieve their goals without fear or hesitation, and therefore they always seek to please him, support him, and help him when needed.

- School reasons:

They are numerous, such as the lack of oversight, the large number of students, and the type of social climate prevailing in the school. In this context, Whited added that bullying in the school may come from teachers, the school administration, and the educational educational system as a whole, and this occurs through bad relations between the teacher and the learner, and discrimination. Among the students, contempt, exclusion, punishment of all kinds, and the absence of stimulation.
In addition to many reasons, including:

- psychological reasons :

Such as shyness, anxiety, and the victims do not have the ability to confront, and they tend to withdraw, and their self-esteem is low, and they are afraid, and escaping is their means of resolving conflicts.

- Cognitive reasons:

Where the victim of bullying forms a negative image of himself and his abilities.

- Social reasons:

They are numerous, such as lack of social skills, lack of relationships with peers, lack of social status, which leads to a tendency to social isolation, withdrawal and negativity, and lack of verbal and communication skills.

Global programs to prevent school bullying:

I have prepared and designed many international intervention programs to prevent bullying in schools and anti-bullying strategies, which have proven through their application their ability to confront the problem for all parties involved in the situation.
One of these global programs to intervene and prevent school bullying, which is one of the most comprehensive programs in confronting this phenomenon, is the Dan Elwes Program for Preventing School Bullying. This program provides a clear framework for administrators, teachers and parents that can be applied at the national and global levels.
Likewise, throughout the various educational stages and at the level of the study, the classroom, and the students themselves, and is achieved by the solidarity and concerted efforts of the administration, teachers, parents, and students, and the efforts of specialists in the field from outside the school, while ensuring that they obtain their commitment to help stop bullying, and the extent of its application extends from year to year to measure the extent of Its effectiveness in reducing the spread of bullying and mitigating its effects.